Shaikh al-Albaani

Translations From His Works

Tag: mutazilah

A Discussion on the Ascendancy of Allaah, the Most High, and a Critique of the Belief that He is Present in all Things | 1


 

Questioner: We hear some people say that Allaah سبحانه وتعالى is in all places and we hear [others] say that He is above His Throne, above the Heavens or the Seventh Heaven. [Could you] benefit us [with an answer], may Allaah reward you with good.

Al-Albani: Yes, in reality this is an important question connected to the present day situation of the ummah.

Since that which delights the heart is that there is an Islamic awareness, and I do [indeed] believe that there really is an awakening, but it is in its early stages.

Part of it is that, as you see, I’m almost about to reach my eighties, forty years ago I would not hear, ‘Allaah said … the Prophet of Allaah said …’ on the tongues of the preachers and admonishers or those directing the people except for very few indeed.

And when one of them would speak about an aayah, he would not know its tafsir properly because he wouldn’t know the principles upon which the noble aayah should be explained.  And if he reported a hadith from the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم he would do so without verifying its authenticity.

As for today, then I think that you have all witnessed along with me that many times you will hear, ‘This hadith is authentic … and this [hadith] is reported by Bukhari … by Muslim … that Ibn Jarir at-Tabari explained this aayah to mean such and such and Ibn Kathir the Damascene explained it to mean such and such …’ and so on.

So this, without doubt, is from the signs of an awareness, but as I said just now, we are still in its early stages.

You raised the question of Allaah’s Names and Attributes, so is what some of these people talk about [actually] from the Attributes of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic?

Rather, [is] what all of the general masses today, and some of their scholars, amongst them being some who associate themselves with the schools of thought of theological rhetoric or tawheed, like the Ash’aris or the Maturidis, let alone the Mu’tazilah who are barely mentioned nowadays apart from a few individuals who have gone astray following their misguidance–[is what some of these people talk about [actually] from the Attributes of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic?]

For part of the creed of the Ash’aris and the Maturidis, following on from that of the Mu’tazilah, is that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, is everywhere–so is this from the Attributes of Allaah, the Blessed and Most High?

Is having a place from the Attributes of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic?

Us humans have a place, we are now in one of Allaah’s houses, we are in a place–but is Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, in a place?

The answer is that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, is far removed from being in a place. For even while bearing in mind all of the differences in this issue and others, there is unanimous agreement amongst all of the Muslims that Allaah was and there was nothing with Him. Allaah was and nothing was with Him as occurs in the hadith of Imraan ibn Husain in Sahih Bukhari.

Thus Allaah was and there was nothing with Him, and there was no universe with Him, i.e., saying that Allaah is everywhere is from major shirk which negates the Oneness/Uniqueness [tawheed] of Allaah in His Names and Attributes.  How so?

Let us look at what Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has described Himself with.

Did He describe Himself in an aayah or an authentic hadith as being everywhere?

I do not say that not only have such statements not been reported in a hadith, but rather that this is speech for which Allaah has sent down no authority [whatsoever]. That is because it opposes what Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, described Himself as.

And as for the aayahs in which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has described Himself stating that the characteristic of complete and total ascendancy over all of His creation is His, and that He is not in anything from His creation but rather that He is above every [single] thing from it–then [such] aayahs [are so numerous that they] cannot be counted.

Like the aayah …, ‘The Most Gracious rose over the [Mighty] Throne [in a manner that suits His Majesty],’ [Taa Haa 20:5]. ‘The Most Gracious rose over the [Mighty] Throne [in a manner that suits His Majesty] …’

A Discussion Concerning the Difference of the Companions in Creed [Aqidah] | 2


 

Continuing from the first post.

Shaikh al-Albaani continues, “And a group called the mufowwidah can be found which is between these two.

They [incorrectly] do not believe or accept the apparent meaning of the proofs from the Book and the Sunnah which are connected to the Attributes [of Allaah] while declaring Him free of any likeness to His creation and not ascribing the qualities of the creation to Him [tanzeeh]. They do not perform ta’weel as the Khalaf do about whom we spoke earlier and who are the ones who say, ‘Indeed the madhhab of the Salaf is safer, but the madhhab of the Khalaf has more knowledge and is more precise.’

So the disagreement [with these groups] is not in the [subsidiary] parts, it is not possible to escape that, but rather in the foundational principle.

What is the rule that the Salaf go by?

It is to have that faith in everything reported from Allaah and His Messenger which includes believing in the apparent, clear, linguistic meanings [of the words reported] in the texts while declaring Him free of any likeness to His creation and not ascribing the qualities of the creation to Him [tanzeeh], as occurs in the Most High’s Saying–and this is a proof which is often used, “There is nothing like Him. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” [Shooraa 42:12]

So in this sentence our Lord the Mighty and Majestic firstly mentioned, “There is nothing like Him …” declaring Himself free from having any likeness to His creation and then He followed this negation of likeness with an affirmation, which is His Saying, “… And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.”

So now, when we want to tread upon the path of the Salaf, [we find that] they did not differ whatsoever in understanding [the meaning] of “… the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” For the belief they held was that the attribute of Hearing is not like that of Seeing and that [in addition to this] both of the attributes are just like the rest of the Divine Attributes: we affirm them as they have been reported while differentiating between each one and while declaring Allaah, the Blessed and Most High, to be free of any likeness to anything from His creation [tanzeeh].

What is the stance of the Mu’tazilah, the ones who negate the Attributes? They take the first part of the aayah, “There is nothing like Him …” [believing in it] declaring Allaah to be free of any likeness to His creation and not ascribing the qualities of the creation to Him [tanzeeh]–but they went to extremes in this tanzeeh and they [ended up] negating the meaning. So they said the meaning of, “… And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer,” is ‘The All-Knowledgeable.’

Thus they negated these two Attributes, because humans can hear and see and so they thought [that by affirming this it would mean that] they were the same [as Allaah]. And they thought that by fleeing from affirming these two Attributes they were performing tanzeeh without ta’teel [negation of the Attribute], but they didn’t notice that the thing which they thought they were fleeing from is what they fell into …

So there is, as the Shaikh of Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allaah have mercy on him, said, an association in the wording but no such real association [between Allaah and the creation] in the meaning.

The Attributes of Hearing and Seeing and the Eye, are three Attributes which our Lord, the Blessed and Most High, has been described with in the Quraan just like [He has been described with] the other Attributes mentioned in the Quraan.

But that does not mean that a person’s hearing, seeing and knowledge is like the Hearing, Seeing and Knowledge of Allaah.

For this reason, when the Mu’tazilah fled to this incorrect interpretation of the Hearing, Seeing and Knowledge [of Allaah], it is said to them that they negated two true and real Attributes from the Attributes of Allaah, the Blessed and Most High.”

On Hizbut-Tahrir | 4


Translated by Ahmed Abu Turaab

Shaikh al-Albaani continues, “Here we will stop for a short while [to consider the following]: who are the scholars? Are they the scholars of the disbelievers? No, we give them no weight, due to what we just mentioned that they are not intellectuals, the reality is that they are clever/smart because they have invented and innovated and so on, and have advanced in material civilisation well-known amongst all [but they are not intellectuals].

Likewise the intellect of the Muslims, this intellect [found] in each individual amongst them differs, so the intellect of the scholar is not the same as that of the ignorant one.

And I will say something else: the intellect of the scholar who acts upon his knowledge is not equal to the intellect of the scholar who does not. They will never be equal, ever.

For this [reason] the Mu’tazilah deviated in many of the fundamental principles which they laid down and by which they opposed the way of the Legislation: in relation to the Book, the Sunnah and the methodology of the Pious Predecessors. This is the first point: the reliance of Hizb at-Tahrir upon the intellect more than should be the case.

The second point, and it branches off from the first one in my view, is that they divided the texts of the Book and the Sunnah into two, as regards their chain of narration and the proof taken/derived from them. [Namely, regarding] the chain of narration they said, “[It is possible that] a narration can be unequivocally established and it may also be [the case] that it is hypothetically established. [And in the same way] the point proven by a narration can be unequivocal [but others] can be hypothetical.”

We’re not debating this terminology [now], since the situation is as is said, every nation can use the terminology they wish, but what we are discussing is what [happens] when other things are added to this terminology which oppose what the first Muslims were upon.

And from this the importance of the Path of the Believers will become clear to you. Because the Muslim scholar, let alone the ignorant Muslim, was restricted from turning away from the text of the Book and the Sunnah by using terminologies like these. And as a result of the terminology of ‘unequivocal’ and ‘hypothetic’, whether concerning the chain of narration of the meaning taken from the text, the following resulted:

They said: when a text comes in the Noble Quraan–and it, without doubt, according to the previous terminology would be regarded as ‘unequivocal in its [textual authenticity] being established–[they said] when a text comes in the Quraan which is not unequivocal in the point being established [or the meaning being conveyed] then it is not obligatory on the Muslim to take the meaning that it contains, because it is something which can only be established hypothetically, so it is not permissible for him to adopt a point of creed on a text which is unequivocally established [as being true and from Allaah, i.e., the Quraan] but is suppositional in whichever point it is that is trying to be proven.

And likewise the total opposite is also true with them: that when a proof comes which is unequivocal in the meaning it is conveying but is suppositional [according to them] in its being established [as a correct and true text] then in the same way they will not take a point of creed from it.

And so [it is based upon this that] they came with a creed not known to the Pious Predecessors. And they laid down for themselves a new set of terminology, and their books are well-known, and [when I say] their books, it is the old ones I am referring to, because they have made changes therein, and I am from the most well-acquainted of people with those changes, but in reality it is only [change] in form. And [even] if it is conceded [that changes were made] then it only proves that even in their creed they were confused, since they said, “Creed is not established except by way of a proof which is [1] unequivocally established, [2] unequivocal in the point being proven.”

And so it was upon this that they established their creed: that creed is not taken from a hadith unequivocal in the proof it is conveying [but only, according to them,] authentic in its chain of narration [i.e., they do not regard a saheeh/authentic hadith as being unequivocal even though the meaning that it may contain is absolutely clear].

So we said to them in the debates and arguments we had with them, “Where did you get this principle from? And it is a principle which includes issues of creed, so where did you get this creed from? What is the proof that it is not allowed for a Muslim to base his creed on an authentic [saheeh] hadith but which is not reported in mutawaatir form which [according to them is the only form which] qualifies absolute certainty in the proof it is establishing? Where did you get this from?”

So here they became confused in their answer. And the discussion on this topic is lengthy, very lengthy, and as proof they used [texts] such as His Saying, the Most High, “They follow nothing but assumption/a guess, and indeed, assumption avails not against the Truth at all.” [An-Najm 53:28].”

Following the Understanding of the Salaf


The following is the translation of a lecture given by the Shaikh.  The PDF version can be found here: The Understanding of the Salaf

باب مصادر الاستدلال عند أهل السنة
الكتاب، السنة، فهم سلف الأمة، وبيان أثر التنكب
عن منهج فهم السلف في أبواب العقيدة

Chapter
Being a Discussion of the Sources which the Ahlus-Sunnah Derive Proofs from: The Book, The Sunnah, and The Understanding of the Pious Predecessors of the Ummah And a Clarification of the Effect of Deviating from the Methodology of the Pious Predecessors in the Affairs of Creed

“In the Name of Allaah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, all praise is for Allaah, and may the peace and praise of Allaah be upon the Messenger of Allaah, may the prayers of Allaah, the Most High, be upon him, his family, and his Companions. As for what follows:

Then verily Allaah, the Most High, has favoured us with the blessing of faith, and has favoured the ummah with the scholars, the ones whom He, the Most High, honoured through the knowledge He gave them so that they could illuminate the path to Allaah and to the worship of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, for the people. And they are the inheritors of the Prophets without doubt. The reason for our coming here [today], [a reason] which will remain, inshaa Allaah, is [to seek] the Pleasure of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and to seek [that] knowledge which leads to it, inshaa Allaah.

And by Allaah, this is certainly an excellent hour that we are able to meet our Shaikh, our scholar and our great teacher, the Shaikh Muhammad Naasirud-Deen al-Albaani, in the name of the residents of this district firstly, the Shuwaikah district, we welcome our excellent Shaikh wholeheartedly, and [we welcome him] in the name of the residents of Al-Mafraq, and especially [in the name of] its students of knowledge, who all welcome [him] too and who have been eager to meet our noble teacher today–and there is no harm in that because all of us are eager to hear the pearls of knowledge and wisdom that he possesses inshaa Allaah.

So let us listen to Read the rest of this entry »

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